A a
a dull or deadened sound, made by striking any soft object, or the ground𐓄𐓐𐓂𐒼𐒷 2
a little bit (used with both count nouns and mass nouns)π’Ήπ’·π“„π’·π““π’»Ν˜ 3unspec. comp. form ofπ’Ήπ’·π“„π’·π““π’»Ν˜
a small amount or number𐒡𐓂𐓄𐒰 4
acrid smell (such as armpit odor or onion smell)π“’π’°Ν˜π“’π’» 2
act of hearing, understanding, paying attention, heeding adviceπ“π’°Ν˜π“π“Žπ“Šπ’· 3
activate by pushing on𐓄𐒰𐓐𐒻 2unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1
administer medical care to someoneπ“‡π“Šπ’·π“π’· 2unspec. comp. form of-𐓍𐒷
alcohol
along a path toward where you (the hearer) are or toward something or someone closer to you (the hearer) than to the speaker𐓇𐒷 π“ˆπ’°π’Ήπ’° 2unspec. comp. form of𐓇𐒷2π“ˆπ’°π’Ήπ’°1
and (in numbers only)π’·π“Šπ’»1 1
animal's tail, part of Osage dance costumeπ“†π’»Ν˜π“Šπ’· 2
any item worn like a blanket or robeπ“€π’»Ν˜3 4
any kind of bread whether corn or wheat, in any shape or sizeπ“π’°π“Šπ“Žπ’· 3unspec. comp. form of𐓏𐒰-3π“Šπ“Žπ“Šπ’·
any kind of flour or grain (such as wheat, oats)π“π’°π“Šπ“Žπ’· 5unspec. comp. form of𐓏𐒰-3π“Šπ“Žπ“Šπ’·
approximately half a container𐒹𐒷𐓄𐒷 2
around (e.g., the edge of a pond)𐒰𐒼𐒻𐓐𐒷 13
arrive back here (action completed)
arrive back there (action completed)
as a means of or to𐒻-1 3
ask or tell someone to do something𐒷1 2
aspirin, or any other kind of medicineπ“€π’°Ν˜π’Όπ’°1 2
assign a name to something or someoneπ“π’°π“Šπ’·2 6unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒰-1
aunt (father's sister)*π“Šπ’»π“€π’»
aunt (mother's older sister)*π’Ήπ“‚Ν˜ 2
aunt (mother's older sister) (his/her)π’»π’Ήπ“‚Ν˜ 4unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π’Ήπ“‚Ν˜
aunt (mother's sister) (my)π’»π“π’°Ν˜ 2
B b
back (of a human or animal's body)π“π’°Ν˜π’Όπ’°1 1
badger
bark, moo, quack, etc.𐒹𐓂1 2
bathroom, toilet room, john, water closet, outhouseπ“‚π““π’·π“Šπ’»unspec. comp. form of𐓂-𐓓𐒷1π“Šπ’»1
be (a certain way)π“π’»Ν˜1 2
be around, especially in a bothersome way𐒰𐒼𐒻𐓐𐒷 4
be arrayed around, as when making a path around𐒰𐒼𐒻𐓐𐒷 11
be at the point of happeningπ“π’°Ν˜π“Šπ’·1 8
be characterized by [the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase]π“π’»Ν˜1 5
be hanging (on the back of or behind something else)𐓂𐓍𐒰𐒹𐒰 6
be in good health𐓁𐒻4 2
be present here/thereπ’·π“Šπ’»2 1
be sick fromπ“‚Ν˜1 3
be well or all right𐓁𐒻4 1
beans
bed, place one lies inπ“‚π““π’°Ν˜ 3unspec. comp. form of𐓂-π““π’°Ν˜1
bend one's limb or body part (e.g., leg or arm)π“π“Žπ“‡π“‚Ν˜ 1unspec. comp. form ofπ“π“Ž-
bent over (as a person, a tree, or a hooked staff)π“Š'π’»Ν˜π“‡π’° 3
blanket (bed blanket or Pendleton-type wool blanket for wearing)π’Ήπ’°π“π’»Ν˜
blow with force (as in blowing one's nose)𐒼𐒰𐓓𐒻 5unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-
boil, as food boils when cookingπ’°π“„π“Žπ“π’· 1
border or edge of an objectπ’Όπ“‚Ν˜π’Ήπ’° 2
branching out, as the separate claws on a foot𐓐𐒰𐒼𐒰 4
break a long object by pushingπ“„π’°π“π“‚Ν˜ 1unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1π“π“‚Ν˜
break by biting or with the mouthπ“π’°π“π“‚Ν˜ 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒰-1π“π“‚Ν˜
break off by pushing (e.g., a limb)π“„π’°π“π“‚Ν˜ 2unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1π“π“‚Ν˜
break off, break by striking (a long object, such as a stick)π’Όπ’°π“π“‚Ν˜ 1unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-π“π“‚Ν˜
brother (baby, of a female) (her)𐒼𐓐𐒰𐓄𐒱 5
brother (baby, of a female) (my)𐒼𐓐𐒰𐓄𐒱 3
brother (baby, of a female) (said to be used by a woman to refer to her youngest brother or to her youngest son if she has at least two older sons)𐒼𐓐𐒰𐓄𐒱 2
brother (baby, of a female) (your)𐒼𐓐𐒰𐓄𐒱 4
brother (older, of a female)*π“Šπ’»Ν˜π“ˆπ“‚
brother (older, of a male)*π““π’»Ν˜π“π’·
brother (younger, of a male)*π“†π“‚Ν˜π’Όπ’°
brother-in-law (husband's brother)*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 1
brother-in-law (husband's brother) (her)𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 1unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (husband's brother, of a female) (my)𐓏𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 1unspec. comp. form of𐓏𐒻-1*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (husband's brother, of a female) (your)𐓍𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 1unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (husband's sister's brother, of a female) (my)
brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband, of a female)*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 3
brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband, of a female) (her)𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 3unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (husband's sister's husband, of a female) (your)𐓍𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 3unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (sister's husband, of a female)*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 2
brother-in-law (sister's husband, of a female) (her)𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 2unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (sister's husband, of a female) (my)𐓏𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 2unspec. comp. form of𐓏𐒻-1*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (sister's husband, of a female) (your)𐓍𐒻𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐓇𐒻𐒼'𐒷
brother-in-law (sister's husband, of a male) (his)π’»π“ˆπ’°Ν˜π’Ήπ’° 3unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π“ˆπ’°Ν˜π’Ήπ’°
brother-in-law (wife's brother)*π“ˆπ’°Ν˜π’Ήπ’° 2
brother-in-law (wife's brother) (his/her)π’»π“ˆπ’°Ν˜π’Ήπ’° 2unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π“ˆπ’°Ν˜π’Ήπ’°
build a fire onπ’°π“Šπ’·π“π’·unspec. comp. form of𐒰-2
burst, as a leaf on the forehead, by striking it with the hands𐒼𐒰𐓄𐓐𐓂𐒼𐒷 7unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-𐓄𐓐𐓂𐒼𐒷
by blowing (as on a fire to get it started, dust from a table top, dandelion fluff into the wind, anything from the palm of the hand)π“„π“Ž-1 2
by extreme of temperatureπ“ˆπ’°- 1
by heat or coldπ“ˆπ’°- 2
by means of cutting or sawing𐓄𐒰-2 1
by means of pushing𐓄𐒰-1 1
by means of sudden intrusive action (e.g., 'by shooting', 'by punching')𐓄𐓂- 1
by means of the handπ“π“Ž-
by means of the mouth𐓍𐒰-1
by pressing, smoothing, flattening, rubbingπ“„π“Ž-1 1
by pushing away or by hand𐓄𐒰-1 2
by pushing or pressing on something (either compacting or spreading it)𐓄𐒰-1 3
by pushing up and away with the hands𐓄𐒰-1 4
by sudden application of force or sudden movement𐒼𐒰- 2
by use of a sharp edge𐓄𐒰-2 3
C c
Caddo (tribe or tribal member)π’Ήπ’»Ν˜π“‡π’°
call on someone's nameπ“π’°π“Šπ’·2 1unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒰-1
call on the telephone𐓂𐒼𐒻𐒷1 4unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒻𐒼-2
carry on the back𐒼'π’»Ν˜ 2
cause to fly out into pieces𐓄𐒰𐓆𐒻𐒼𐒷 12unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1
change (as the weather)π“‡π’Όπ’°Ν˜ 2
Cherokee (tribe or tribal member)𐓇𐒰𐒿𐒰𐒼𐒻
chop down (not by sawing)𐒼𐒰𐓆𐒷 4unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-*𐓆𐒷
chop or cut with a striking blow (e.g., from a blade, such as an axe or knife)𐒼𐒰𐓆𐒷 1unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-*𐓆𐒷
chop up (e.g., long, thin sticks of wood for a fire)𐒼𐒰𐓆𐒷 3unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-*𐓆𐒷
circle around (as in a tipi meeting'go clear around', avoiding the center)𐒰𐒼𐒻𐓐𐒷 6
clean, disinfect (e.g., a buffalo hide)π“π“Žπ“π’°π“†π“Ž 3unspec. comp. form ofπ“π“Ž-
clear sky, as after a storm𐒼𐒷𐓍𐓂
climb onto (by using the arms)π’°π“Šπ’· 2
clubs (suit in a deck of cards)π“Š'𐒰𐓓𐒻 3unspec. comp. form ofπ“Š'𐒷𐒰𐓓𐒻
cold (used for inanimates only)𐓁𐒻𐓁𐒻1 1
cold with sniffles and fever𐒹𐓂𐓐𐓄𐒷 3
come back (action underway)
command someone to do something𐒼𐒰𐓓𐒻 4unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-
continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 1st singular sitting or lying down subjectπ“€π’»Ν˜π’Όπ“‡π’·
continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 2nd singular sitting subjectπ“π’»Ν˜π’Όπ“‡π’· 1
continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person singular or plural moving or absent subject𐒰𐓄𐒰1 1
continuative aspect postverbal marker (indicating ongoing action or state in present, past, or future time) for 3rd person singular or plural nonmoving subject that is present with speaker𐒰𐒼𐓐𐒰1 1
cook, prepare (e.g., food)π“‚π’Ήπ“‚Ν˜
cousin (father's sister's daughter)*π“Šπ’»π““π“‚ 1
cousin (father's sister's daughter) (his/her)π’»π“Šπ’»π““π“‚ 1unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π“Šπ’»π““π“‚
cousin (father's sister's son)*π“Šπ“‚π“‡π’Όπ’° 4
cover (as with cloth or blanket)𐒰𐒼𐒰𐓆𐓄𐒷2 3unspec. comp. form of𐒰-2
cover (for a tipi, sweat house, pillow, etc.)𐓂𐓍𐒻𐓇𐒻 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-3
cover with dirt (as a grave)𐒰𐒼𐒰𐓆𐓄𐒷2 4unspec. comp. form of𐒰-2
crack the leaves of the zhaⁿ shabe hu with the tongue𐓍𐒰𐓄𐓐𐓂𐒼𐒷 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒰-1𐓄𐓐𐓂𐒼𐒷
crooked, bent over (referring to a human body)π“Š'π’»Ν˜π“π’°
culmination of (a certain action or state)𐓂- 3
cut (e.g., with scissors)π“π“Žπ“†π’·unspec. comp. form ofπ“π“Ž-*𐓆𐒷
cut into pieces (e.g., a cake)𐓄𐒰𐓆𐒷1 2unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1*𐓆𐒷
cut off by using a pushing motion𐓄𐒰𐓆𐒷1 3unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1*𐓆𐒷
cut up (e.g., meat or potatoes)𐓄𐒰𐓆𐒷1 1unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1*𐓆𐒷
cylindrical, but not necessarily perpendicular𐒴𐓂𐒼𐒰 15
D d
daughter (fourth and beyond) (his/her)π’°π“†π’»π““π’»Ν˜ 3
daughter (fourth and beyond) (my)π’°π“†π’»π““π’»Ν˜ 1
daughter (fourth and beyond) (your)π’°π“†π’»π““π’»Ν˜ 2
daughter (fourth and sebsequent daughters)π’°π“†π’»π““π’»Ν˜ 4
daughter (second) (his/her)𐓏𐒻𐒹𐒷 3
daughter-in-law
daughter-in-law (son's wife)*π“Šπ’»π“π’»
difficult, hard to do things with𐓆𐒰𐒼𐒻 7
dig (e.g., a grave)𐓄𐒰𐒼'𐓂 1unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1
discard someone or somethingπ“‚Ν˜π“π’° 4
disheveled (e.g., having mussed or messed-up hair)𐒹𐒷𐓐𐓄𐒰 5
distributed to eachπ“π’°Ν˜4
divorce or separate fromπ“‚Ν˜π“π’· 6
do, engage in (an activity)π“‚Ν˜2
done (e.g., in cooking)π“Šπ“Žπ“Šπ’· 1
drive (a vehicle)𐒼𐒰𐓓𐒻 1unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-
drop something into (e.g., eyedrops into eyes)𐓂𐓍𐒻𐒼'𐒷
during the nightπ’Ήπ’°Ν˜ 3
dust or clean (e.g., the house)π“π’»π“Šπ’»π“’π’· 1unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-3
E e
each other (reciprocal)𐒼𐒻𐒼-2 2
earth division (of the Osage tribe)π’Ήπ’°Ν˜π’Όπ’° 5
eat (in general)
edging (e.g., a fabric or ribbon sewn around the edges of a blanket or garment)𐒴𐒰𐓐𐒷 2
elders in times pastπ“π“‚Ν˜1 10
emanate an odorπ’΄π’°Ν˜ 2
emanate an odor while being heated (as in cooking/burning, refers to either a good or bad odor)π“ˆπ’°π’΄π’°Ν˜ 2unspec. comp. form ofπ“ˆπ’°-π’΄π’°Ν˜
emit or exhale an odorπ’΄π’°Ν˜ 4
encircle a place or a person (especially in an annoying way)𐒰𐒼𐒻𐓐𐒷 3
end or stop an activity involving the mouthπ“π’°π“‡π“ˆπ’°Ν˜ 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒰-1*π“‡π“ˆπ’°Ν˜
enter formally (as into a peyote meeting)𐓂𐓄𐒷 2
enter or go in/into𐓂𐓄𐒷 1
F f
fan made of feathers or loose feathers (as used in peyote meetings)π“€π’°Ν˜π“‡π’°Ν˜ 3
fart (with a small noise, by letting the air out slowly)π“π’»π““π’»π“Šπ’· 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-3
father's cousin (father's mother's brother's daughter)*𐒼𐓂 5
father's cousin (father's mother's brother's daughter) (his/her)𐒻𐒼𐓂 11unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
father's cousin (father's mother's brother's daughter) (my)𐒻𐒼𐓂 12unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
father's cousin (father's mother's brother's daughter) (your)𐓍𐒻𐒼𐓂 6unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐒼𐓂
feathers of certain kinds of birds (such as eagle, hawk, and macaw)π“€π’°Ν˜π“‡π’°Ν˜ 2
feel cold (animate subject)π“π’»π“Šπ’· 2
field planted for harvest𐓂𐓏𐒷 4
fine (e.g., fine raindrops)π“π“‚π“ˆπ’°Ν˜ 3
fit, be suitable or appropriateπ’»π“ˆπ’°1 4unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π“ˆπ’°
flat, as a chair bottom, the broad surface of a board, etc.𐒴𐒰𐒼'𐒰 2
flat, flattened or mashed (said of a soft object)π“ˆπ“‚π““π’· 1
follow (e.g., a path, a person, God's word, a car, or a horse)𐓂𐓍𐒰𐒹𐒰 1
forked or pronged, as antlers𐓐𐒰𐒼𐒰 3
fresh corn cut off the cobπ“„π’°π“‡π“„π“Ž1 2unspec. comp. form of𐓄𐒰-1
fuzz as on a peachπ’Ήπ’»Ν˜2 4
G g
game bird or other large bird𐓀𐒻𐓐𐒰 3
gather or pick (e.g., fruit)π“π“Žπ“’π’· 8unspec. comp. form ofπ“π“Ž-
generic noun subject marker𐒰𐒼𐓐𐒰2 2
give forth a crackling sound, as ice does when thrust at𐓆𐓂𐓏𐒷 4
give off a fragranceπ’΄π’°Ν˜ 3
go back
go down (e.g., the sun when setting)𐓄𐒰𐓄𐓂 3
go home
go through or down (as a road)π“‚π“„π“π’°Ν˜1 2
grandmother (his/her)𐒻𐒼𐓂 1unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
grandmother (my)𐒻𐒼𐓂 2unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
grasp someone by the scruff of the neck𐓍𐒻𐓆𐒼𐒻1 2unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-3
grease or similar substance (such as shoe polish)𐓏𐒷𐒿𐒻 3
great aunt (father's mother's sister)*𐒼𐓂 3
great aunt (father's mother's sister) (his/her)𐒻𐒼𐓂 7unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
great aunt (father's mother's sister) (my)𐒻𐒼𐓂 8unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
great aunt (father's mother's sister) (your)𐓍𐒻𐒼𐓂 4unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐒼𐓂
great aunt (mother's mother's sister)*𐒼𐓂 2
great aunt (mother's mother's sister) (his/her)𐒻𐒼𐓂 5unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
great aunt (mother's mother's sister) (my)𐒻𐒼𐓂 6unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*𐒼𐓂
great aunt (mother's mother's sister) (your)𐓍𐒻𐒼𐓂 3unspec. comp. form of𐓍𐒻-1*𐒼𐓂
great uncle (mother's father's brother)*π“Šπ’»π’Όπ“‚ 6
great-grandfather (paternal)*π“Šπ’»π’Όπ“‚ 5
grow up to adulthoodπ“π“‚Ν˜1 2
H h
halt, detain someone who is passing byπ“π’°Ν˜π““π’»Ν˜ 9
hands of the body that are touched by the attendees when passing by it at a funeral𐓇𐒰𐒼𐒷1 11
have as an illnessπ“‚Ν˜1 2
having a flat surface in the middle, with the edges rounded and curving downward, as a door knob, or the top of a hat (convex objects)𐒴𐒰𐓇𐒼𐒰
having a flat surface in the middle, with the edges rounded and curving upward, as in a plate or other concave objects𐒴𐒰𐓍𐒰 5
having leaves or leaflike layers𐓐𐒰𐓐𐒰 3
he/she/it is characterized by, they are characterized by (the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase)𐒰𐓄𐒰1 2
he/she/it is characterized by, they are characterized by [the immediately preceding word or phrase, which may be a noun phrase]𐒰𐒼𐓐𐒰1 2
hearts (suit in a deck of cards)π“π’°Ν˜π“Šπ’·2 2
herd (animals)𐒼𐒰𐓓𐒻 2unspec. comp. form of𐒼𐒰-
here near you𐓇𐒷2 1
here, in this place𐒼𐒰 6
him/her/it (closer to the hearer than to the speaker)𐓇𐒷2 4
his/her𐒻-2
his/hers, theirs (be)π’»π“ˆπ’°1 1unspec. comp. form of𐒻-2*π“ˆπ’°
holder (for pourable dry or liquid substances)π“‚π““π“Ž 12
homely